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道德經中英對照(九)完

第七十四章 民 不 畏 死 , 奈 何 以 死 懼 之 ? 若 使 常 畏 死 , 而 為 奇 者 ,吾 執 得 而 殺 之 , 熟 敢 ? 常 有 司 殺 者 殺 . 夫 代 司 殺 者 殺 , 是 謂 代 大 匠 斲. 夫 代 大 匠 斲 , 希 有 不 傷 其 手 . 74. Execution If people were not afraid of death, Then what would be the use of an executioner? If people were only afraid of death, And you executed everyone who did not obey, No one would dare to disobey you. Then what would be the use of an executioner? People fear death because death is an instrument of fate. When people are killed by execution rather than by fate, This is like carving wood in the place of a carpenter. Those who carve wood in place of a carpenter Often injure their hands. 第七十五章 民 之 飢 , 以 其 上 食 稅 之 多 , 是 以 飢 . 民 之 難 治 , 以 其上 有 為 , 是 以 難 治 . 人 之 輕 死 , 以 其 生 生 之 厚 , 是 以 輕死 . 夫 唯 無 以 生 為 者 , 是 賢 於 貴 生 . 75. Rebellion When rulers take grain so that they may feast, Their people become hungry; When rulers take action to serve their own interests, Their people become rebellious; When rulers take lives so that their own lives are maintained, Their people no longer fear death. When people act without regard for their own lives They overcome those who value only their own lives. 第七十六章 人 生 之 柔 弱 , 其 死 堅 強 . 万 物 草 木 生 之 柔 脆 , 其 死 枯槁 . 故 堅 強 者 死 之 徒 , 柔 弱 者 生 之 徒 . 是 以 兵 強 則 不 勝, 木 強 則 共 . 故 堅 強 處 下 , 柔 弱 處 上 . 76. Flexibility A newborn is soft and tender, A crone, hard and stiff. Plants and animals, in life, are supple and succulent; In death, withered and dry. So softness and tenderness are attributes of life, And hardness and stiffness, attributes of death. Just as a sapless tree will split and decay So an inflexible force will meet defeat; The hard and mighty lie beneath the ground While the tender and weak dance on the breeze above. 第七十七章 天 之 道 , 其 猶 張 弓 ! 高 者 抑 之 , 下 者 舉 之 , 有 餘 者 損之 , 不 足 者 與 之 . 天 之 道 , 損 有 餘 而 補 不 足 ; 人 道 則 不然 , 損 不 足 , 奉 有 餘 . 熟 能 有 餘 以 奉 天 下 ? 其 唯 有 道 者. 是 以 聖 人 為 而 不 恃 , 功 成 不 處 , 斯 不 見 賢 . 77. Need Is the action of nature not unlike drawing a bow? What is higher is pulled down, and what is lower is raised up; What is taller is shortened, and what is thinner is broadened; Nature's motion decreases those who have more than they need And increases those who need more than they have. It is not so with Man. Man decreases those who need more than they have And increases those who have more than they need. To give away what you do not need is to follow the Way. So the sage gives without expectation, Accomplishes without claiming credit, And has no desire for ostentation. 第七十八章 天 下 柔 弱 莫 過 於 水 , 而 攻 堅 ; 強 莫 之 能 先 . 其 無 以 易之 . 故 弱 勝 強 , 柔 勝 剛 , 天 下 莫 能 知 , 莫 能 行 . 故 聖 人云 : 「 受 國 之 垢 , 是 謂 社 稷 主 ; 受 國 不 祥 , 是 謂 天 下 王. 」 正 言 若 反 . 78. Yielding Nothing in the world is as soft and yielding as water, Yet nothing can better overcome the hard and strong, For they can neither control nor do away with it. The soft overcomes the hard, The yielding overcomes the strong; Every person knows this, But no one can practice it. Who attends to the people would control the land and grain; Who attends to the state would control the whole world; Truth is easily hidden by rhetoric. 第七十九章 和 大 怨 , 必 有 餘 怨 , 安 可 以 為 善 ? 是 以 聖 人 執 左 契 ,不 責 於 人 . 故 有 德 司 契 , 無 德 司 徹 . 天 道 無 親 , 常 與 善人 . 79. Reconciliation When conflict is reconciled, some hard feelings remain; This is dangerous. The sage accepts less than is due And does not blame or punish; For harmony seeks agreement Where justice seeks payment. The ancients said: "nature is impartial; Therefore it serves those who serve all." 第八十章 小 國 寡 人 , 使 有 什 伯 之 器 而 不 用 , 使 人 重 死 而 不 遠 徙. 雖 有 舟 轝 , 無 所 乘 之 ; 雖 有 甲 兵 , 無 所 陳 之 . 使 民 復結 繩 而 用 之 . 甘 其 食 , 美 其 服 , 安 其 居 , 樂 其 俗 , 鄰 國相 望 , 雞 狗 之 聲 相 聞 , 民 至 老 死 , 不 相 往 來 . 80. Utopia Let your community be small, with only a few people; Keep tools in abundance, but do not depend upon them; Appreciate your life and be content with your home; Sail boats and ride horses, but don't go too far; Keep weapons and armour, but do not employ them; Let everyone read and write, Eat well and make beautiful things. Live peacefully and delight in your own society; Dwell within cock-crow of your neighbours, But maintain your independence from them. 第八十一章 信 言 不 美 , 美 言 不 信 . 善 者 不 辯 , 辯 者 不 善 . 知 者 不博 , 博 者 不 知 . 聖 人 不 積 , 既 以 為 人 己 愈 有 , 既 以 與 人 己 愈 多 . 天 之道 , 利 而 不 害 . 聖 人 之 道 , 為 而 不 爭 . 81. The Sage Honest people use no rhetoric; Rhetoric is not honesty. Enlightened people are not cultured; Culture is not enlightenment. Content people are not rich; Riches are not contentment. So the sage does not serve himself; The more he does for others, the more he is satisfied; The more he gives, the more he receives. Nature flourishes at the expense of no one; So the sage benefits all men and contends with none.
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